package ru.circumflex
package web
import scala.collection.Iterator
import scala.collection.JavaConversions._
import scala.xml._
import core._
import javax.servlet.http.{HttpServletRequest}
import java.util.{Locale, Date}
import javax.servlet.ServletInputStream
import org.apache.commons.fileupload._
import org.apache.commons.fileupload.disk._
import org.apache.commons.fileupload.servlet._
import{File, BufferedReader}
import java.lang.String
import java.util.{Enumeration => JEnumeration}
import collection.mutable.Map

HTTP Request

The HttpRequest class wraps specified raw HttpServletRequest and allows you to use core Scala classes to operate with Servlet API.

This class is designed to efficiently cover mostly used methods of HttpServletRequest, however, you still can access the raw field, which holds actual request. For more information refer to Java Servlet API.

Since Circumflex is UTF-friendly it will implicitly set character encoding of request body to UTF-8. Feel free to change it if your application requires so.

class HttpRequest(val raw: HttpServletRequest) {

Request Basics

General request information can be accessed using following methods:

  • protocol returns the name and version of the protocol the request uses (e.g. HTTP/1.1);
  • method returns the name of HTTP method with which the request was made, it's value is overriden by request paremeter _method to provide a workaround for browsers;
  • scheme returns the name of the scheme used to make this request (e.g. “http”, “https” or “ftp”);
  • uri returns the request URI without query string;
  • queryString returns the query string that is contained in the request URL after the path;
  • url reconstructs an URL the client used to make the request;
  • isSecure returns true if the request was made using a secure channel, such as HTTPS.

The result of uri, url and queryString is decoded into UTF-8 string using URLDecoder.

Note that JSESSIONID encoded into URI is not reported via method uri (thus, it does not participate in matching).

Also note that if the method is overriden by the _method parameter, the original method is saved in context under the cx.originalMethod key.

  def protocol = raw.getProtocol
  def scheme = raw.getScheme
  def isSecure = raw.isSecure
  lazy val method = params.get("_method") match {
    case Some(m) =>
      // store original method in context
      ctx.update("cx.originalMethod", raw.getMethod.toLowerCase)
    case _ => raw.getMethod.toLowerCase
  lazy val originalUri = {
    var u = URLDecoder.decode(raw.getRequestURI, "UTF-8")
    val sid = ";jsessionid=" + sessionId
    val i = u.indexOf(sid)
    if (i != -1 && i == u.length - sid.length)    // endsWith
      u = u.substring(0, i)
  def uri = ctx.getAs[String]("cx.web.uri").getOrElse(originalUri)
  lazy val queryString = if (raw.getQueryString == null) "" else
    URLDecoder.decode(raw.getQueryString, "UTF-8")
  lazy val url = URLDecoder.decode(raw.getRequestURL.toString, "UTF-8")

  // implicitly set request encoding to UTF-8

Client & Server Information

Following methods provide information about the server:

  • serverHost returns the host name of the server for which this request was originated;
  • serverPort returns the port number to which the request was sent;
  • localIp returns the Internet Protocol address of the interface on which the request was received;
  • localHost returns the host name of the IP interface on which the request was received;
  • localPort returns the IP port on which the request was received.

Following methods can be used to retrieve basic information about the client:

  • remoteIp returns the Internet Protocol address of the client (or last proxy) that sent the request;
  • remoteHost returns the host name of the client (or last proxy) that sent the request;
  • remoteLogin returns the login of the user making the request wrapped in Some, if the user has been authenticated (via container-managed security), or None if the user has not been authenticated;
  • sessionId returns session identifier specified by the client;
  • userPrincipal returns for requests authenticated with container-managed security mechanisms;
  • isUserInRole indicates whether authenticated principal has specified role inside container-managed security system.
  def serverHost: String = raw.getServerName
  def serverPort: Int = raw.getServerPort
  def localIp: String = raw.getLocalAddr
  def localHost: String = raw.getLocalName
  def localPort: Int = raw.getLocalPort

  def remoteIp: String = raw.getRemoteAddr
  def remoteHost: String = raw.getRemoteHost
  def remoteLogin: Option[String] = any2option(raw.getRemoteUser)
  def sessionId = raw.getRequestedSessionId

  def userPrincipal: Option[Principal] = any2option(raw.getUserPrincipal)
  def isUserInRole(role: String): Boolean = raw.isUserInRole(role)


A list of preferred locales is specified by the value of the Accept-Language header of the request. You can access this list and the most preferred locale (with maximum relative quality factor) using locales and locale fields.

  def locale: Locale = raw.getLocale

  lazy val locales: Seq[Locale] = raw.getLocales.asInstanceOf[JEnumeration[Locale]].toSeq


The cookies field provides access to request cookies. You can use rich functionality of Scala collections to work with cookies:

request.cookies.find( == "my.cookie")
  lazy val cookies: Seq[HttpCookie] = {
    val cs = raw.getCookies
    if (cs == null) Nil
    else => HttpCookie(c))


Request headers contain operational information about the request. Circumflex Web Framework lets you access request headers via the headers object.

  object headers extends Map[String, String] {
    def +=(kv: (String, String)): this.type = this
    def -=(key: String): this.type = this
    def iterator: Iterator[(String, String)] = raw.getHeaderNames
            .map(k => (k -> raw.getHeader(k)))
    def get(key: String): Option[String] = any2option(raw.getHeader(key))
    def getAsMillis(key: String): Option[Long] = any2option(raw.getDateHeader(key))
    def getAsDate(key: String): Option[Date] = getAsMillis(key).map(new Date(_))
    def getAsInt(key: String): Option[Long] = any2option(raw.getIntHeader(key))


Request attributes presented by Servlet API are typically used to pass information between a servlet and the servlet container or between collaborating servlets.

Circumflex Web Framework lets you access request attributes via the attrs object.

  object attrs extends Map[String, Any] with UntypedContainer {
    def +=(kv: (String, Any)): this.type = {
      raw.setAttribute(kv._1, kv._2)
    def -=(key: String): this.type = {
    def iterator: Iterator[(String, Any)] = raw.getAttributeNames
            .map(k => (k -> raw.getAttribute(k)))
    def get(key: String): Option[Any] = any2option(raw.getAttribute(key))


Request parameters can be accessed via the params object.

  object params extends Map[String, String] {
    def +=(kv: (String, String)): this.type = this
    def -=(key: String): this.type = this
    def iterator: Iterator[(String, String)] = raw.getParameterNames
            .flatMap(k => list(k) => (k -> v)))
    def get(key: String): Option[String] = any2option(raw.getParameter(key))
    def list(key: String): Seq[String] = {
      val values = raw.getParameterValues(key)
      if (values == null) Nil
      else values.toList


Session is a convenient in-memory storage presented by Servlet API which allows web applications to maintain state of their clients.

A special identifier, session ID, is generated once the session is initiated. Clients then, to identify themselves within application, send session ID as a cookie with every request.

Circumflex Web Framework lets you access session attributes via the session object.

Note that if session was not already created for the request, it will only be created if you attempt to add an attribute into it via update or + method, all other methods will return empty values without implicitly creating a session.

  object session extends Map[String, Any] with UntypedContainer {
    def +=(kv: (String, Any)): this.type = {
      raw.getSession(true).setAttribute(kv._1, kv._2)
    def -=(key: String): this.type = {
      val s = raw.getSession(false)
      if (s != null) s.removeAttribute(key)
    def iterator: Iterator[(String, Any)] = {
      val s = raw.getSession(false)
      if (s != null)
                .map(k => (k -> s.getAttribute(k)))
      else Iterator.empty
    def get(key: String): Option[Any] = {
      val s = raw.getSession(false)
      if (s != null) any2option(s.getAttribute(key))
      else None
    def invalidate(): this.type = {
      val s = raw.getSession(false)
      if (s != null) s.invalidate()


Circumflex Web Framework lets you access the body of the request via body object. Following methods can be used to work with request body:

  • isXHR returns true if this request is XMLHttpRequest;
  • encoding returns or sets the name of the character encoding used in the body of the request (as mentioned above, we implicitly set it to UTF-8);
  • isMultipart returns true if the request has multipart/form-data content and is suitable for multipart operations;
  • length returns the length, in bytes, of the request body;
  • contentType returns the MIME type of the body of the request;
  • reader opens to read the request body;
  • stream opens javax.servlet.ServletInputStream to read the request body;
  • asXml attempts to read the request body as XML element, an exception is thrown if parse fails;
  • asString reads request body into String using request encoding.

Note that due to limitations of Servlet API, you can only access one of reader, stream, xml or toString methods (and only once). An IllegalStateException is thrown if you access more than one of these methods.

  object body {

    def isXHR: Boolean = headers.getOrElse("X-Requested-With", "") == "XMLHttpRequest"
    def isMultipart: Boolean = ServletFileUpload.isMultipartContent(raw)
    def encoding: String = raw.getCharacterEncoding
    def encoding_=(enc: String) {
    def length: Int = raw.getContentLength
    def contentType: String = raw.getContentType
    def reader: BufferedReader = raw.getReader
    def stream: ServletInputStream = raw.getInputStream
    lazy val asXml: Elem = XML.load(stream)
    lazy val asString = IOUtils.toString(stream, encoding)

Multipart Requests & File Uploading

Standard Servlet API doesn't provide any capabilities to work with requests of MIME type multipart/form-data which are usually used by the clients to upload files on the server.

Circumfex API uses Apache Commons FileUpload to simplify this things for you. Commons FileUpload API is very robust and can be used in a number of different ways, depending upon the requirements of your application.

Commons FileUpload offers you two approaches to deal with multipart/form-data requests:

  • traditional API relies on FileItemFactory which can be configured to keep small files in memory and to store larger files on the disk, you set threshold sizes and operate with convenient FileItem objects, which could be queried for different information, like the name of the corresponding field, it's size in bytes, content type, etc.
  • streaming API does not use intermediate storage facilities and allows you to work with FileItemStream objects, which show better performance and lower memory usage.

Circumflex Web Framework provides support for both FileUpload styles via parseFileItems and parseFileStreams methods respectively.

Note, however, that you can only use one of them (and only once) while working with the request (it's the limitation of accessing request body in Servlet API mentioned above, so reader, stream, asXml and asString methods will also interfere with FileUpload).

For more information about configuring a FileUpload environment that will suit your needs, visit Commons FileUpload Project Page.

    def parseFileItems(factory: FileItemFactory): Seq[FileItem] =
      if (isMultipart) {
        val uploader = new ServletFileUpload(factory)
      } else Nil

    def parseFileItems(sizeThreshold: Int, tempStorage: File): Seq[FileItem] =
      parseFileItems(new DiskFileItemFactory(sizeThreshold, tempStorage))

    def parseFileItems(sizeThreshold: Int, tempStorage: String): Seq[FileItem] =
      parseFileItems(sizeThreshold, new File(tempStorage))

    def parseFileStreams(): Iterator[FileItemStream] = if (isMultipart) {
      val it = new ServletFileUpload().getItemIterator(raw)
      new Iterator[FileItemStream]() {
        def next(): FileItemStream =
        def hasNext: Boolean = it.hasNext
    } else Iterator.empty


Include & Forward

The methods forward and include use request dispatcher mechanism provided by Servlet API to forward the request processing to or to include partial result from different web application object (such as servlet).

  def forward(uri: String) {
    raw.getRequestDispatcher(uri).forward(raw, response.raw)
  def include(uri: String) {
    raw.getRequestDispatcher(uri).include(raw, response.raw)

  override def toString: String = method + " " + uri + " " + protocol