package ru.circumflex
package web
import util.matching.Regex
import scala.collection.immutable.Map
import collection.Iterator


The Matcher trait and the MatchResult class are the cornerstone of request routing.

Matchers define mechanisms which perform request matching. They yield zero or more match results on successful match and are used in routes definition.

Match results are subsequently used inside matched route's block.

Match Results

The results of matching contain information about successful match. The name reflects the name of the Matcher which yielded this match result, and the params contains strings captured by Matcher. The special name splat is assigned to parameters with unknown name (+, * or any group, if you use regular expressions).

class MatchResult(val name: String,
                  val params: (String, String)*) extends Map[String, String] {
  def +[B1 >: String](kv: (String, B1)): Map[String, B1] = this
  def -(key: String): Map[String, String] = this
  def iterator: Iterator[(String, String)] = params.iterator

  def get(index: Int): Option[String] =
    if (params.indices.contains(index)) Some(params(index)._2)
    else None
  def get(name: String): Option[String] = params.find(_._1 == name) match {
    case Some(param: Pair[String, String]) => Some(param._2)
    case _ => None

  def apply(): String = apply(0)
  def apply(index: Int): String = get(index).getOrElse("")

  def splat: Seq[String] = params.filter(_._1 == "splat").map(_._2).toSeq

  override def default(key: String): String = ""
  override def toString() = apply(0)

Matchers can be composed together using the & method. The CompositeMatcher will only yield match results if all it's matchers succeed.

trait Matcher {
  def apply(): Option[Seq[MatchResult]]
  def add(matcher: Matcher): CompositeMatcher
  def &(matcher: Matcher) = add(matcher)

trait AtomicMatcher extends Matcher {
  def name: String
  def add(matcher: Matcher) = new CompositeMatcher()

class CompositeMatcher extends Matcher {
  private var _matchers: Seq[Matcher] = Nil
  def matchers = _matchers
  def add(matcher: Matcher): CompositeMatcher = {
    _matchers ++= List(matcher)
  def apply() = try {
    val matches = _matchers.flatMap(_.apply() match {
      case Some(matches: Seq[MatchResult]) => matches
      case _ => throw new MatchError
    if (matches.size > 0) Some(matches)
    else None
  } catch {
    case e: MatchError => None

The RegexMatcher

The RegexMatcher is designed to provide common request matching functionality to all matchers.

It can be used either with regular expressions or with String expressions.

When using regular expressions, if match is successful, the matched groups can be accessed using the params method of corresponding MatchResult.

When using String expressions, following processing occurs:

  • the characters ., ( and ) are escaped so that they are not mistreated by regex engine;
  • the named parameters like “:param” are recognized within the expression; they are transformed into reluctant regex groups ([^/?&#.]+?) which match any characters except /, ?, ?, &, # and .;
  • all occurences of the * character is replaced with reluctant groups (.*?) which match zero or more characters;
  • all occurences of the + character is replaced with reluctant groups (.+?) which match one or more characters;
  • ? remains the same and indicates that the preceding character is optional for matching (for example, get("/files/?") matches both /files and /files/ requests).

Then, if match is successful, named parameters are accessible by their name from the corresponding MatchResult. All other parameters are accessible via the params method (note that named parameters are groups too, so they appear inside params and have their index as well).

class RegexMatcher(val name: String,
                   val value: String,
                   protected var regex: Regex,
                   protected var groupNames: Seq[String] = Nil) extends AtomicMatcher {
  def this(name: String, value: String, pattern: String) = {
    this(name, value, null, Nil)
  protected def processPattern(pattern: String) {
    this.groupNames = List("splat")    // for `group(0)`
    this.regex = (""":\w+|[\*+.()]""".r.replaceAllIn(pattern, m => match {
      case "*" | "+" =>
        groupNames ++= List("splat")
        "(." + + "?)"
      case "." | "(" | ")" =>
        "\\\\" +
      case _ =>
        groupNames ++= List(
  def groupName(index: Int): String=
    if (groupNames.indices.contains(index)) groupNames(index)
    else "splat"
  def apply(): Option[Seq[MatchResult]] = {
    val m = regex.pattern.matcher(value)
    if (m.matches) {
      val matches = (0 to m.groupCount).map(i => groupName(i) ->
      Some(List(new MatchResult(name, matches: _*)))
    } else None

HeaderMatcher is used to match the requests by contents of their headers.

class HeaderMatcher(name: String,
                    regex: Regex,
                    groupNames: Seq[String] = Nil)
    extends RegexMatcher(name, request.headers.getOrElse(name,""), regex, groupNames) {
  def this(name: String, pattern: String) = {
    this(name, null, Nil)

HeaderMatcherHelper provides DSL for matching requests by headers. See matchers object in package ru.circumflex.web for more information.

class HeaderMatcherHelper(name: String) {
  def apply(regex: Regex, groupNames: Seq[String] = Nil) =
    new HeaderMatcher(name, regex, groupNames)
  def apply(pattern: String) = new HeaderMatcher(name, pattern)